In addition to pain, from minor to throbbing to sharp, there can be swelling of the joint and a hot, burning sensation. Maybe your big toe is making its way over to your second toe. You may also feel some embarrassment. It’s a type of deformity, after all.
If you have very limited motion in your big toe, say you find it impossible to stand on your tip toes, you may have hallux rigidus, which involves arthritis of the joint, seen on an X-ray.
If your big toe is extremely painful, you don’t feel any relief by taking off your shoes and your toe hurts even when touching the bed sheets, you may have gout.